Sharia: what does it say about....

What does Sharia say about:
Adultery
Apostasy
Homosexuality
Jihad
Non-Muslims
Women

I'll add to this series as I go along.
The reason for starting this series is that we see so much about Sharia these days.  And the apologists for it  -- those who say that it's benign, or that it's not being promoted for non-Muslims and so on -- will so often misrepresent what Sharia says.  We need to have an authoritative source of what Sharia really says.
The source for all these topics is The Umdat al-Salik, (the “Reliance of the Traveller” in English), sub-titled "A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law".
This is the authoritative summary of Sharia law, in Arabic with facing English text, authorised by the al-Azhar University in Cairo, the most authoritative source of Islamic Sunni law for the Muslim world.  It is also authorised by International Institute of Islamic Thought and the Fiqh Council of North America.  All references are to the numbering of the Amana Publications edition of 1991.

I hope that this series can become a quick "go-to" reference.
In my experience of following Islam and Sharia, I've found that whenever there is a new implementation of Sharia law that apologists for Islam find uncomfortable, and therefore challenge as being "non-Islamic" or whatever, I find that it's justified by the Umdat.  Stonings, killing homosexuals and apostates, fighting the infidels, it's all there in the the Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law.
Here is a great video (posted 23 June 2012) on Sharia by Frank Gaffney, if you have 27 minutes to spare.  The intro music is a touch fraught, but the contents are spot on (other vids in Gaffney's series here):